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Janik Mäder. Sebastian Wimmer. Johannes Dörfler. Sascha Härtel. VfB Lübeck. Sebastian Hertner. Moody Chana.
Osarenren Okungbowa. Tim Kircher. Martin Röser. Michael Luyambula. Dren Feka. Thorben Deters. Ersin Zehir. Pascal Steinwender. Jamie Shalom.
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Marin Sverko. Lukas Schleimer. Marius Köhl. Timo Wagner. Fabian Eisele. Nino Miotke. Stephan Andrist. Patrik Herbrand. Türkgücü München. Yi-young Park.
Marco Raimondo-Metzger. Emre Kurt. Omar Sijaric. Philipp Erhardt. Daniele Gabriele. Alexander Laukart. Atakan Akkaynak. Nico Gorzel. Erol Alkan.
Stefan Stangl. Filip Kusic. Marian Knecht. Yasin Yilmaz. Marcel Spitzer. Fabio Leutenecker. Kasim Rabihic. Stefan Wächter. Emre Güral.
Mario Erb. Serhat Imsak. Ilker Yüksel. SC Verl. Sascha Korb. Lasse Jürgensen. Julian Schwermann. Till Brinkmann. Dominik Sollfrank.
Leander Siemann. Berkan Taz. Philipp Sander. Justin Eilers. Christopher Lannert. Fabian Brosowski. Cinar Sansar. Anton Heinz. Hendrik Lohmar.
Christopher Schepp. Luis Klante. Jan Schöppner. Philip Semlits. Sebastian Lange. Ron Schallenberg.
Lucas Brumme L. BFC Dynamo. Maurice Malone M. Florian Carstens F. Matthias Hamrol M. Dennis Kempe D. Johannes Wurtz J. Tim Boss Tim Boss.
Gianluca Korte G. Tim Walbrecht T. Marc Lais Marc Lais. Gustaf Nilsson G. Ahmet Gürleyen A. FSV Mainz 05 II. Benedict Hollerbach B.
Stuttgart U Ben Bischof B. SV Wehen U Dominik Prokop D. Cedric Euschen C. Manuel Schäffler M. Heinz Lindner H. Düsseldorf II. Jules Schwadorf J.
Lukas Watkowiak L. Maximilian Dittgen M. Marcel Titsch Rivero M. Sidney Friede S. Daniel-Kofi Kyereh D. Nicklas Shipnoski N.
Jan Vogel Jan Vogel. SG Barockstadt. Marc Wachs M. Hessen Dreieich. Jeremias Lorch J. Niklas Dams N. Dortmund II.
Giona Leibold G. Patrick Schönfeld P. Jan Albrecht J. Gökhan Gül G. Jan-Christoph Bartels J. Dominik Franke D.
Wolfsburg II. Törles Knöll T. Philipp Hosiner P. Robin Becker R. Pascal Sohm P. Sebastian Mai S. Panagiotis Vlachodimos P. Christoph Daferner C. Patrick Weihrauch P.
Yannick Stark Y. Tim Knipping T. Paul Will Paul Will. Julius Kade J. Agyemang Diawusie A. Marvin Stefaniak M.
Jonathan Meier J. Simon Gollnack S. Dresden U Stefan Kiefer S. Ransford Königsdörffer R. Alexander Jeremejeff A. Vasil Kusej V.
Matthäus Taferner M. Luka Stor Luka Stor. Jannis Nikolaou J. Jannik Müller J. Osman Atilgan O. Brian Hamalainen B. Simon Makienok S.
Linus Wahlqvist L. Florian Ballas F. Sascha Horvath S. Patrick Ebert P. Baris Atik B. Niklas Kreuzer N. Dzenis Burnic D.
Patrick Schmidt P. Marco Terrazzino M. Josef Husbauer J. Godsway Donyoh G. Ondrej Petrak O. Lenn Jastremski L. Wolfsburg U Nicolas Kühn N. Alexander Lungwitz A.
Lenny Borges L. Milan U Lukas Schneller L. FC Bayern U Taylor Booth T. Dennis Waidner D. Marvin Cuni M. Jahn Herrmann J. Ivan Mihaljevic I.
Jonas Kehl J. Malik Tillman M. Bright Arrey-Mbi B. Fiete Arp Fiete Arp. Although thc two picccs arc vcry likcly to bc lragmcnts ol onc luncrary monumcnt, it will not bc possiblc to say anything morc until ad ditional inlormation is lound in thc Muscum documcntation.
As thc inscription, duc to its lragmcntary prcscrvation, is, and was cvcn at thc timc ol its rst publication, vcry dil cult to rcad, it is not quitc clcar to whom thc monumcnt was dcdicatcd.
Probably thrcc pcrsons,! Vhat can bc sccn lrom this inscription is that thosc wcrc gcntilc namcs Fla. Mirkovi, in hcr rcscarch into thc origin ol thc inhabitants ol Pincum, mcntions this vcry inscription, or its publishcd lragmcnt, as a con rmation ol thc cxistcncc ol thc namcs Fla.
Scttlcmcnt ol vctcrans in thc vicinity ol lcss important military camps, likc thc onc in Pincum, bcgan rclativcly carly, which is supportcd by cvidcncc on thcsc scttlcmcnts lrom thc rst hall ol thc sccond ccntury and latcr.
A largc numbcr ol stampcd bricks havc bccn discovcrcd at this sitc to datc. Claudia, whilc thosc stampcd with leg IIII probably rclcr to!
Mirkovi bclicvcs that it also rclcrs to a pcrson scrving in this lcgion. Claudia was stationcd. Town administrators, dccurions, also sct up thc monumcnt with thc rclicl ol augurs on thc soclc, and Hclcn and Mcnclaus in thc ccntral rclicl, and thc monumcnt with S.
Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art Tc dcscribcd qualitics ol thc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pin cum, and thcrclorc thc luncrary monumcnt itscll, raisc many issucs con ccrning this, obviously as yct uncxplorcd, antiquc scttlcmcnt.
Kanitz visitcd it, all that rcmaincd ol thc lort was onc wall towards thc anubc, still visiblc in somc placcs.
Scholars havc idcnticd Pincum, thc Roman and arly 8yzantium lort. Tc mcntioncd brick inscrip tions comc lrom Pincum,. Claudia, which wcrc dcdicatcd to Jupitcr, onc by a lormcr soldicr and thc othcr, abovc a lragmcntarily prcscrvcd sculptural rcprcscntation, by Aclius Silvanus.
For thc dcdicant ol Jasons sarcophagus, ol high military ranking, and analysis ol thc iconography ol this sarcophagus, scc Pilipovi :oo, 68, cl.
Cunjak, bascd on thc rcsults ol smallscalc rcscuc cxcavations, simply rcports a nccropolis with crcmation burials to thc northwcst ol Pincum, and anothcr onc with inhumation burials to thc southwcst ol thc lort.
Transccnding in its signicancc thc provincial boundarics, thc monumcnt discusscd in this papcr corroboratcs this bclicl. Jovanovi :ooo, 8:, in his analysis ol thcsc daggcrs, suggcsts that thc two arc complcmcntary and idcntics thcm as sica, a wcllknown wcapon ol Tracian or a cian origin.
Trough carclul analysis thc author arrivcs at thc conclusion that this is thc gravc ol a lormcr soldicr ol!!!! Claudia, and datcs it to thc rst hall ol thc :nd ccntury.
Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art! Tc idca to dcpict thc hcroic thcmc with Achillcs and Hcctor on thc marblc rclicl lrom Pin cum, and thc cmphasis on thc idca that only.
Claudia was stationcd at Pincum, hc may havc bclongcd to onc ol its units. Tc inscription discovcrcd along with this rclicl lragmcnt probably bclongcd to thc samc scpulchral wholc.
Although its rcading is madc di cult by its lragmcntary statc ol prcscrvation, it suggcsts Romanizcd inhabit ants whosc gcntilc namcs wcrc Fla.
Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts Belgrade Abbreviations Sources Apd.
Apollodori, Bibliotheca Apd. Apollodori, Epitome Artcm. Artcmidorus aldianus, Oneirocritica Il. Homcri, Ilias Hyg. Hygini, Fabulae Plat. Platon, Symposium Plut.
Plutarchus, Quaestiones Graecae Proclos, Chrest. Proclos, Chrestomathia Literature E Lanee epigraphique, Paris. GSD Glasnik Srpskog arheolokog drut.
GDKS Glasnik drut. ILJug A. IMS Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure! Jahreshefte Jahrcschcltc dcs stcrrcichischcn archaologischcn! Spomenik Spomenik SK.
Scrbian Royal Acadcmy, 8clgradc. Bibliography Allldy, G. Cambi, N. Split: Knjicvni krug. Cumont F. Fecherches sur la symbolisme funeraire des Fomains.
Paris: P. Cunjak, M. Zatitna arhcoloka iskopavanja nckropola Pinkuma. Fimska kamena plastika u jugoslo. Aspccts ol Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, almatia and Mocsia Supcrior.
Popovi, T. Cvjctianin and 8. Fmai Kfaragas es Ks. Fcrri, S. Mit i antika knjie. Jovanovi, A. Arhcoloki tragovi impcrijalnog trijumla nad aanima sa prostora Gornjc Mczijc, Zbornik Matice srpske.
Falsikati u arhcolokom matcrijaluupozoravajua aktuclnost. Kalinka, K. Kanitz, F. Die Fomischen Funde in Serbien. Studien in Serbien, cnkschriltcn dcr Kaiscr Akad.
Classc XL!. Scpulkralni spomcnici sa tcritorijc rimskc provincijc Gornjc Mczijc. Ladck, F. Fomer an der Mittleren Donau.
Fomische Strassen und Festungen. Mscy, A. Pannonia and Upper Moesia. Lc langagc symboliquc dans la dcoration a scncs my thologiqucs ct son scns dans lcs tombcs pcintcs dc lricnt romain nouvcllc approchc.
Paleograja rimskih natpisa u Gornjoj Me. Classis Flavia mocsica na unavu u Gornjoj Mcziji, Starinar XLXL!
Fimski nakit u Narodnom mu. Schclold, K. La lorcc cratricc du symbolismc lunrairc dcs Romains, F!! Schobcr, A.
Die romischen Grabsteine. Sichtcrmann, H. Griechische Mythen auf romischen Sarkophagen. Toynbcc, J. Turcan, R. Lcs sarcophagcs romains ct lc problmc du symbolismc lunrairc, NF!
Messages doutre-tombe. Liconographie des sarcophages romains. Paris: c 8oc card. Gradita, Starinar!!
Prcmcrstcin, F. Antiki spomcnici u Srbiji, Spomenik XXX! X, National Muscum, 8clgradc photo National Muscum, 8clgradc Fig.
Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art Fig. Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lound at! Muscum ol 8udapcst photo rdlyi, g.
Hclcn and Mcnclaus, rclicl on thc marblc stcla ol C. National Muscum, Poarcvac photo!. Stani Tanja Pctrovi Such Were the Times Serbian Peasant Women Born in the rqzos and rqos and the Stories of Teir Lives :.
Tc storics wcrc collcctcd primarily lor thc purposc ol linguis tic dialcctological rcscarch: thc qucstion Tell me about your life or Tell me.
Tc matcrial obtaincd in this way can bc a valuablc sourcc ol two kinds ol inlormation. Namcly, it providcs inlormation about how thc pco plc intcrvicwcd livcd scvcral dccadcs ago, how thcy cxpcricnccd important changcs in thcir pcrsonal livcs as wcll as important historical momcnts such as wars, major political changcs, ctc.
Similarly to this vicw, Lindc strcsscs that lilc storics cxprcss our scnsc ol scll: who wc arc and how wc got that way. Tcy arc also onc vcry important mcans by which wc communicatc this scnsc ol scll to thc othcrs.
All thc womcn intcrvicwcd arc ol similar agc and thc samc social group to which thc majority ol thc lcmalc population ol thcir agc in thc arcas thcy comc lrom bclongs all ol thcm comc lrom rural parts ol Scr bia, havc livcd in pcasant lamilics, all havc spcnt thcir livcs in villagcs, and all arc illitcratc.
Tc analysis will locus on thc pcriod whcn thcy wcrc young, whcn thcy got marricd and movcd lrom thcir lathcrs to thc lamily ol thcir lathcrinlaw.
Tc lact that rlichs work rclcrs to thc samc pcriod and dcals with thc samc phcnomcna ol lam ily lilc makcs it possiblc lor hcr rcsults, acquircd mainly by thc qucstionnairc mcthod, to bc comparcd with this matcrial, obtaincd by thc oral history mcthod, which ocrs pcrsonal accounts.
Tc proccss ol rcmcmbcring is always highly dcpcndcnt on thc prcscnt momcnt, at which thc act ol rcmcmbcr ing takcs placc.
Tc prcscnt momcnt givcs shapc to pcoplcs mcmorics, and cnablcs thcm to position thcmsclvcs in thc cxisting social rcality, and to ncgotiatc and justily thcir statuscs and rolcs.
Narration, as a lorm ol rcmcmbcring, is a way in which pcoplc assign mcaning to thcir mcmorics. Narrativc is among thc. Felationality: Discursi.
Lo and A. Pctrovi, Such! Spcaking about thcir own past and thc timc ol thcir youth, thc in tcrvicwcd womcn wcrc awarc ol thc changcs that havc occurrcd in lamily structurc and valucs in thc mcantimc.
Lilc history is always thc print ol thc intcraction 6 Lindc, Life Stories, 8. Stcwart, Nostalgia. Nicdcrmullcr, From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt, Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod, in Life History as Cultural Construction Performance, cds.
Holcr and P. Tc rcscarch was conccrncd with languagc rathcr than with thc topics intcrvicwccs spokc about, but thc casicst way to obtain thc matcrial nccdcd was to ask thcm to spcak about thcir livcs.
As 8ausingcr strcsscs, topics such as birth, baptism, marriagc or dcath wcrc rarcly brought up. Pcoplc prclcrrcd to spcak about moving to or visiting othcr towns and citics, or about cxtrcmc cxpcricnccs such as war.
Tis dialogism is thc rcason why thc autobiographical discoursc analyzcd hcrc typically consists ol statcmcnts dcscribing cvcnts lollowcd by pcrsonal com mcnts, as a rulc, thcsc commcnts rclcr to dicrcnccs bctwccn thcir intcr vicwccs and prcscnt timcs.
Holquist, trans. Tsitsipis, Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r. Goodwin, cds. Language as an Interacti. Mannhcim and. Tcdlock, cds.
Position of the young. Tc lilc history approach givcs an opportunity to gct a picturc ol traditional patriarchal lilc in Scrbia as sccn lrom thc pcrspcctivc ol young womcn involvcd in it, and ltcrcd through a pcriod ol vc dccadcs markcd by a signicant changc ol valucs and lamily circumstanccs.
Marriage against. Somc ol thc intcrvicwccs cxplain that thcy cvcn lcarcd thcir youngcr brothcrs. Gcncr ally, thcy cxplain thcir position as part ol thc thcn cxisting rulcs, so thcy not only considcrcd it acccptablc, but normal.
Tcrc wcrc no calcs, no promcnadc, and my parcnts wcrc so strict that! Timcs havc changcd. Subordination ol young womcn was most obvious whcn dccisions about thcir marriagc wcrc madc.
Tcy usually had no inucncc on thc choicc ol a husband. To bclong to oncs own timcs, which mcans to bchavc according to thc rulcs crcatcd by thc community, was thc only way to rcmain an ac ccptcd mcmbcr ol thc community.
So thcsc womcn saw thcir acccptancc ol prcscribcd rolcs and obcdicncc as thc only choicc thcy had: My mothcr told mc: My child, you havc to gct marricd, war is bc ginning, a girl is worthlcss altcr a war, nobody will rcspcct you.
Mittcraucr, A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc 8al kans, Beitraege. Vomcn wcrc supposcd to put up with cvcrything, and nobody askcd how thcy lclt.
Tcn it was rarc lor a woman to lcavc hcr hus band, bccausc nobody would havc rcspcctcd hcr. Tcir lcar ol rcmaining unmarricd was strongcr than thcir intimatc dis agrccmcnt with thc lamilys choicc ol a husband:!
Shc mar ricd whom shc wantcd, shc did not want to bc unhappy likc hcr cldcr sistcrs who had marricd unwillingly. Shc sucrcd a lot, but shc madc it.
Timcs wcrc dicrcnt thcn. Vorobcc, Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Pe- riod Northcrn!
Fethinking the past 8ausingcr says thc innatc contradiction ol autobiography is that somcthing unnishcd has to bc prcscntcd as il it wcrc round and donc and closcd.
Tis ncccssarily crcatcs a distinction bctwccn thc narrator and thc protagonist ol thc narrativc, and intcrposcs a distancc bctwccn thcm.
Conscqucntly, thc narrator can obscrvc, rccct, adjust thc amount ol distancc, and corrcct what is bcing crcatcd.
Vc havc spcnt :: ycars togcthcr. Vc had childrcn latcr, and wc havc lovcd cach othcr bccausc ol thc childrcn.
Tcy havc thc childrcn ol thcir own now. So, that was my lilc, it was bru tal in a way, but it has comc out wcll. Somchow, onc comcs to lovc oncs husband latcr.
Vc havc bccn marricd lor o ycars, my husband was oltcn away, hc workcd a lot, hc spcnt :6 months in thc army. Vc had thrcc malc childrcn, onc ol thcm dicd, so wc havc two sons and vc grandchil drcn now.
Tat is thc way wc arc living now. Father and father-in-la. For thc intcrvicwcd womcn, thcir lathcr was an absolutc authority. Tcy strcss his dcspotic, authoritativc rolc in thc lamily: My lathcr was vcry strict with mc, hc did not allow mc to go any whcrc.
My lathcr was vcry tough,! My lathcr would takc mc to a dancc, but hc would also takc a stick along. And whcn! Hc lovcd mc as il! Tcn in thc morning!
Hc was lying in his bcd and! Such an obligation ol young womcns towards thc lathcrinlaw was insti tutionalizcd in a patriarchal community. A bridc had similar obligations towards hcr mothcrinlaw, but taking carc ol hcr intimatc aairs was taboocd and only onc ol thc intcr vicwcd womcn was rcady to talk about it: Vhcn my mothcrinlaw had a pcriod,!
Shc did not wcar undcrwcar, only a long shirt. Tc lilc story mcth od givcs an opportunity to look at thc position ol a young woman within that community lrom hcr own pcrspcctivc, this mcthod shcds a somcwhat dicrcnt light on this issuc lrom thc qucstionnairc mcthod.
Vhilc lcar is thc basic lccling charactcriz ing thc passagcs about thcir lathcrs, whcn spcaking about thcir lathcrsin law thc womcns cmphasis is on coopcration and condcncc: Vhcn!
And wc livcd o that cow. At thc cnd ol thc ycar my lathcrinlaw was vcry plcascd with mc and my work. Tcsc womcn arc always vcry proud ol thc lact that thcir lathcrsinlaw wcrc lond ol thcm: Vhcn my husband and his brothcr dccidcd to livc apart, my lathcr inlaw dccidcd to stay with us.
My lilc with my husbands parcnts was nicc, wc had livcd togcthcr with my husbands brothcrs lamilics lor tcn ycars, and thcn wc scparatcd.
My lathcrinlaw and mothcrinlaw wcnt on living with us. My lathcrinlaw uscd to say: onc docs not choosc a son, but a daughtcrinlaw.
Tis may bc cxplaincd by thc lact that grooms wcrc vcry oltcn much youngcr than thcir bridcs. Tcy wantcd to marry and gct bridcs lrom good lamilics.
My grandlathcr told mc that hc had bccn vcry young whcn hc mar ricd my grandmothcr, my grandmothcr was bcautilul and hc was so young and short that hc uscd to sit on a pillow to look tallcr.
So, my grandlathcr thought! Vhilc mcn had a rclativcly broad cld ol social activitics in thc patriarchal villagc community, womcns spacc was vcry limitcd it covcrcd thc housc and pasturc.
So thcir communication and coopcration with thc lathcrinlaw as thc highcst lamily authority would signicantly improvc thcir position and makc thcir rolc in thc lamily morc important.
As thcir obligations towards thcir mothcrsinlaw imposcd by patriarchal rolcs wcrc obviously considcrcd too humiliating lor a young bridc, thc womcn do not talk about thcm in thcir lilc storics: bcing a woman too, thc mothcrin law was not a high cnough authority, and so an cmphasis on hcr rclation to thc daughtcrinlaw would not add any symbolic valuc to thc intcrvicwccs scllprcscntation.
Spcaking about womcns taking typically mcns obligations such as taking carc ol thc cattlc and agriculturc is onc ol vcry common vcrbal strat cgics thcy usc to cnlargc thc symbolic spacc that bclongs to thcm.
Pctrovi, Struggling lor Spacc. Tachcva and!. Ncdin 8lagocvgrad, :ooo. Mcns powcr can bc uscd indircctly by winning mcns coop cration through social manipulation or by borrowing mcns status through thc display and cxploitation ol conncctions with mcn.
Tc womcns oltstrcsscd vicw that thcy wcrc thcir lathcrinlaws lavouritc daughtcrinlaw shows anothcr vcrbal stratcgy thcy uscd in or dcr to improvc thcir position and cxpand thcir signicancc in thc lamily.
Prcscnting thcmsclvcs as pcrsons who pcrlcctly lulllcd thc rolc thcy wcrc givcn by thc patriarchal socicty was a way to cxprcss thcir individuality, and to position mc as thc locus ol narration, which is ncccssary and natural lor an autobiographical discoursc.
Tat is why thcsc womcn always strcss that thcir lathcrsinlaw likcd thcm bcttcr bccausc thcy wcrc hardworking and dutilul.
Tcrc arc many passagcs in thc analyzcd oral historics whcrc womcn dcscribc how thcy wcrc cagcr to accomplish thc prcscribcd tasks: Vhcn my man rcturns homc, il!
Hc would say, o not cry lor that, woman. Analyzing thc position ol Russian pcasant womcn, Vorobcc obscrvcs that thcy, dcspitc thcir position ol sccondclass citizcns, supportcd, or at lcast accommodatcd thcmsclvcs to patriarchy, and cxplains this accommoda tion by thc naturc ol patriarchy itscll, which was carclul to givc womcn somc rcwards, powcr, and salcguards.
Russian pcasants honourcd womcn as mothcrs and diligcnt pcrsons. Popova, So,! Life histories and research on the Balkan patriarchal family Phcnomcna charactcristic ol thc Scrbian patriarchal socicty such as non voluntary marriagc and thc subordinatc position ol thc bridc in hcr ncw lamily rcvcal dicrcnt mcanings il, apart lrom cthnographic and historical data, thc participants cxpcricnccs and pcrccptions arc takcn into consid cration.
Due to a cumulative effect created by the incident shock wave, the temperature at small distances from the axis rises sharply and exceeds the mean value several-fold.
We may therefore confidently use it to estimate the lower limit of the temperature achieved in the latest experiments on powerful pulsed discharges.
Figure 2 shows the density distribution of matter at the instant of implosion. The maximum density at this instant is from 30 to 40 times the original density of the gas.
One of the interesting peculiarities of the theoretically determined density distribution is the low value in the neighbourhood of the column axis.
This type of density variation is directly connected with the temperature rise near the axis the pressure, proportional to pT, should level out in this region.
Experiments conducted during recent years on high-power pulsed discharges have continued the main trend of earlier research, the results of which were published in and are well known to our colleagues.
In the recent experiments, much attention has been devoted to raising the parameters of the pulsed discharge with the aim of attaining higher temperatures.
Design refinements in the spark-gap system and electric power system have made it possible to raise considerably the voltage per unit length of the discharge tube and simultaneously reduce the spurious inductance of the circuit.
This has resulted in a several-fold increase in the rate of current build-up and in a rise of the current during the first contraction up to ka in a discharge tube 50 cm long and 40 cm in diameter.
Figure 3 shows the temperature in a plasma column as a function of the initial voltage applied to a discharge tube filled with deuterium at initial pressure of 0.
The temperature was calculated from Eq. For this reason, we may assume with a high degree of confidence that in the experiments mentioned a temperature exceeding 3 to 4 million degrees was actually attained.
One conclusion therefrom is that the neutron emission observed under these conditions is due in large measure to thermonuclear reactions.
In this connection, mention should be made of the fact that in such high-power processes neutrons appear immediately after the first phase of compression, that is, when both the temperature and density are at a maximum, and the neutron pulse is spread out over a period of the order of a microsecond.
At present, however, proof or disproof of the thermonuclear origin of a small burst of neutron emission in the pulse discharge is hardly of such importance as to warrant special attention in discussions on this subject.
This is why I do not consider it necessary to insist that in the above-mentioned experiments thermonuclear reactions were actually observed.
The question of whether a given neutron belongs to the noble race of descendants of thermonuclear reactions or whether it is the dubious offspring of a shady acceleration process is something that may worry the pressmen but at the present stage in the development of our problem it should not ruffle the composure of the specialists.
When the number of neutrons arising in a single discharge pulse reaches a value in excess of then all doubt as to the origin of this effect will vanish.
However, in order to achieve thermonuclear neutron emission of this magnitude in pulsed discharges, it will be necessary to conduct experiments with electric circuits of considerably higher parameters than have been involved heretofore.
The chief difficulty in this direction is that further increase of the power of the discharge pulse is impeded by heating of the chamber walls.
To a certain degree, this difficulty may be surmounted by using sectional metal-walled chambers. However, attempts should be made in other directions.
For example, an interesting possibility would be magnetic protection of the walls and the use of vacuum chambers with local injection of directed streams of gas.
Besides the series of experiments with high-power discharges, a number of other investigations were carried out to study the different properties of the high-temperature plasma in a pulsed discharge.
Much headway has been made in spectroscopic studies of plasma. After a method had been developed for obtaining streak photographs of discharge spectras, it was found that at the instant of the first maximum compression a sharp flash of the continuum was observed throughout the whole range.
This flash is particularly vivid in the photograph in Fig. The flash of the continuum is explained by the fact that at the instant of maximum compression there is a jump in the degree of ionization of the plasma and, consequently, in the concentration of free electrons, the result being an intensive bremsstrahlung and recombination glow.
By measuring the intensity of the continuum in a given spectral range, it is possible to measure the density of the plasma with sufficient accuracy on the assumption of total ionization.
As calculations show, due to a fortuitous play of numbers, the intensity of the emission is very insensitive to the magnitude of the electron temperature.
For this reason, any arbitrariness in choice of the electron temperature produces practically no effect on the value of the density derived from measurements of the spectral continuum.
Density measurements carried out in this way yield data that are in good agreement with the values obtained from magnetohydrodynamic theory.
Spectral investigations likewise permit evaluation of the plasma temperature from Doppler broadening of impurity lines. As yet this method has been applied only to discharges under standard conditions initial voltage 35 kilovolts, hydrogen pressure 0.
Under these conditions, the plasma temperature at the instant of maximum compression as measured from the width of the nitrogen line N IV works out at roughly ev, as against 65 ev predicted by Eq.
The aim of a number of studies was to determine the properties of hard radiation arising in the plasma and of the mechanism of production of this radiation.
Cloud chambers were used to investigate the spectrum of electron produced by hard X rays from pulsed discharges.
These studies confirmed the earlier Also successful was an attempt at mass-spectroscopic analysis of fast particles produced in the discharge.
The parabola method was used to measure the value of ejm and the energies of ions extracted from the discharge chamber through openings in the side wall or in the electrode.
It was found that the deuteron energy reaches kev. In discussions of the possible mechanism of processes that could lead to the appearance of hard radiations, a frequent opinion was that an essential role is played here by column instability of the " neck " type which enhances cumulation of the shock wave.
To check this supposition, experiments were conducted with a discharge geometry which from the start created conditions that would make the compressing plasma assume an approximately spherical shape.
These experiments yielded interesting results in that they proved that artificial creation of spherical implosion in the compressing plasma radically alters the emission of hard radiations.
Now let us briefly touch on the question of the future of thermonuclear reactions based on the utilization of powerful fast discharges. However, even with optimum prerequisites, it is found that the efficiency of a thermonuclear.
This energy is initially stored in the power sources and then for a brief moment of time it is converted, to a large extent, into the thermal and mechanical energy of the expanding plasma column.
This stage of the process would have the nature of a powerful explosion, at the least estimate equivalent to that of 10 tons of TNT.
At the present level of technical development we do not know of any way of rationally utilizing this explosive energy nor do we know of any means of protecting the unwieldy and expensive apparatus from the destruction that should occur after each pulse.
Such experiments would not go beyond what is technically feasible at present. However, they may unexpectedly lead to the discovery of new facts which may effect in a fundamental way the general development of research into this problem.
Studies of powerful fast discharges have been developing mainly in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Certain questions in this domain have been the subject of investigations carried out at the Physics Department of the Moscow University. The Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as well as the Ukrainian PhysicoTechnical Institute and the Sukhumi Institute of Electron Physics have also carried out experimental investigations of some other types of pulsed processes in which the plasma is acted on by strong magnetic fields.
Plasma acceleration by electrodynamic forces is achieved in its purest form in devices such as the electrodynamic gun.
The simple principle underlying all such devices consists in the following. Experiments have shown that in systems of this type, plasma velocities up to 5 X 4.
Probably considerably greater velocities are attainable. Another method of obtaining plasmoids has been investigated at the Institute of Atomic Energy.
It consists in the following. First a circular plasma loop containing a current is produced in an alternating external magnetic field HG, the lines of force of which are normal to the plane of the loop Fig.
The loop is created as the result of breakdown of the gas by the induced electric field during build-up of the He field.
After a certain interval of time following the formation of the loop, the latter begins rapidly to contract to the axis and changes into a plasmoid Fig.
Experiments have shown that in this way. The brief duration of the heating process makes it possible to dispense with magnetic thermoinsulation.
It is quite obvious that this process can be of economic interest only if the release of thermonuclear energy can balance the cost of the expensive explosives.
Just as in the case of large pulses of electric energy with power yields up to 10 tons of TNT see above , difficulties connected with the explosive nature of the process are encountered on the way towards a practical utilization of implosive heating.
One of the imaginable practical consequences of these experiments may be the development of a method of injecting hot plasmas into magnetic traps.
A pulsed thermonuclear reaction may also be possible under conditions when a high temperature is reached during the compression and implosion produced not by electromagnetic forces, but by a charge of conventional explosives such as TNT or something more powerful surrounding a capsule of deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
In this case the recording apparatus is destroyed. However, the signal from the neutron pulse reached buildings located at a greater distance before the explosion has time to destroy the instruments.
In experiments conducted in it was possible to record both fast neutrons that passed through the charge without any great loss of energy as well as neutrons that were slowed down in the explosive and entered the apparatus gradually, creating a pulse with a width of several tens of microseconds.
In this case, obviously, the notorious question of whether these neutrons are thermonuclear or not is not present. We surely observed in this case neutrons produced as the result of the heating of matter to extremely high temperatures.
The chief difference between this process and electromagnetic compression is that the former. In cases where the current builds up at a slow rate the discharge conditions should be expected to diner fundamentally from those observed when the current rises at a fast rate.
A quantitative criterion which may be used to differentiate between " slow " and " fast " discharges is the ratio of the current rise-time to the period of inertial radial oscillations of the plasma column.
Such discharges may be called "slow", in contrast to " fast " discharges, in which only two or three radial oscillations occur before the current reaches its peak value.
Theoretical In slow discharges the gas-kinetic pressure of the plasma may be expected to balance the electrodynamical forces and the column temperature will be raised at the expense of Joule heat.
An equilibrium state of this type will be suitable for heating of the plasma to very high temperatures only if the following two conditions are satisfied: a The plasma column should not be in contact with the walls.
Progress in the theoretical investigation of equilibrium and stability conditions of plasma columns and of their laws of heating has been made in work carried out in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the guidance of M.
It was first shown in this work that stability of a plasma column with a more or less sharply defined boundary can be attained only if the discharge chamber is enclosed in a conducting sheath which must be close to the chamber walls and also only if a stabilizing magnetic field produced by external coils and directed along the column exists at the same time as the field produced by the plasma current.
Two different stability regimes were inferred. One of these is realized when the contracting plasma column captures a large part of the magnetic flux of the longitudinal field which initially exists in the chamber " paramagnetic.
Figure 6. Radial distribution of longitudinal field Hz and current field with maximum near a , in the " paramagnetic column".
The conditions considered above were investigated in detail by English physicists working with Zeta. Theoretically this approach seems to be the most promising as far as stabilization of the shape and size of the plasma column is concerned.
In the magnetohydrodynamic approximation, the main condition for damping of all dangerous perturbations in highly conducting plasma columns is that Hz within the column should be sufficiently close to the field strength of the current on the boundary of the latter and should exceed several-fold the longitudinal field strength beyond this boundary see Fig.
Another requirement is that the column radius a should not be too small compared to the radius of the chamber cross section, or else the stabilizing effect of the conducting sheath will vanish.
In order to realize the conditions discussed above a comparatively small initial value of the longitudinal field Ho should suffice.
Another advantage is that these conditions naturally arise during the development of pulsed discharges, which are initially spread over the whole cross section of the chamber and then, after becomes equal to Ho, begin to contract, dragging along the lines of the longitudinal field.
From a theoretical point of view, this possibility also possesses some weak points. Thus for a paramagnetic column to be stable, Hz and should differ but slightly.
Therefore only a minor part 0. It should also be added that in order to ensure satisfactory heat exchange between the electrons and ions under paramagnetic conditions the value of N should exceed at least by an order of magnitude the value corresponding to the case when the field is not captured.
The magnetohydrodynamic theory also predicts the existence of another stable discharge regime. In this case stabilization of the plasma column is attained with help of a strong longitudinal magnetic field Hz which everywhere is larger than.
According to the theory, a necessary condition for stability in this case is L 4 1- where L is the column length equal to 2nR for an annular column in a toroidal chamber of radius R.
However, even if this requirement is met there still exist some types of unstabilized perturbations that tend to modify the shape of the column.
The character of these perturbations is schematically depicted in Fig. Apparently they should not be dangerous as they are not associated with displacement of the axis of the plasma column.
In the case under consideration the longitudinal magnetic field covers the whole cross section of the chamber and should not appreciably change near the column boundary see Fig.
Another advantage is that a much higher ion temperature can be obtained than under " paramagnetic " conditions involving currents of the same magnitude.
However, a high price must be paid for these possible advantages since very strong magnetic fields are required. Thus, magnetic fields of the order of 3 X X gauss will be needed in a large volume just to enable one to approach the threshold of temperatures of practical interest, and in order to produce such fields some very serious engineering.
Figure 8. Radial distribution of longitudinal field Hz upper curve , and current field lower curve. Difficulties will also be encountered when establishing the necessary conditions in the system.
The results of magnetohydrodynamic theory briefly considered above nevertheless give good reason to believe that the approach suggested here should be a promising line of advance.
It should be kept in mind that the preceding results were based on a simplification of the physical picture of the discharge and many important points may have escaped attention.
The theory does not apply to displacements from the equilibrium position which possesses wave lengths smaller than the thickness of the skin-effect layer and which evidently cannot be damped by methods suitable for perturbations with larger wave lengths.
It should furthermore be noted that by its very essence magnetohydrodynamic theory cannot be employed to study, for example, such kinetic effects as transition of electrons to a state of continuous acceleration in an electric field.
Due to the low density of matter and to resultant diminution in the retarding force which the ions exert on the electrons, such processes may occur near the boundary of the plasma column.
They may also occur inside the column since in the electron energy spectrum there must be particles which possess energies considerably exceeding the mean energy, and for such particles acceleration may commence even at large values of N.
It is well known that accelerated electron beams can excite various types of plasma oscillations and thus violate the normal course of the process.
Other types of perturbations are conceivable which do not fit the simple magnetohydrodynamic picture and which are potentially dangerous as far as stability of the column is concerned.
We now proceed to a discussion of the experimental results. In the early experiments all basic investigations were carried out with chambers made of insulating materials glass, quartz and porcelain.
Because of the gaseous efflux from the chamber walls reliable results could be obtained with these chambers only for relatively high gas densities in the chamber and for not too powerful discharges.
A study of the effect of a longitudinal magnetic field on the properties of slow discharges revealed that the paramagnetic effect earlier discovered by Soviet physicists in fast pulsed discharges could also be observed in discharges in which the plasma current build-up was slow.
At low values of Hz the effect leads to contraction of the plasma column. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on plasma conductivity was found to be small.
Irrespective of the initial pressure, the induced electric field strength and the value of Hz, the conductivity was approximately xlO 1 4 esu which signifies a low plasma temperature in chambers with insulating walls.
With growth of the external field the discharge becomes more stable but the conductivity does not exhibit an appreciable rise. In order to determine the stability conditions for a plasma column detached from the walls, experiments were performed with discharge tubes in which the discharge started near the axis and then began to expand towards the walls.
These experiments qualitatively confirmed the theoretical conclusion that when inequality 4 is satisfied the column becomes stable.
However, because of large losses at the electrodes there could be no hope of obtaining high plasma conductivities in these experiments.
The next step was the transition to chambers with metallic walls. It was hoped that in such chambers sufficient purity of the gas could be maintained during powerful discharges.
Several large assemblies with. A photograph of one of them designed for investigation of high-current discharges at various values of the external longitudinal field is shown in Fig.
A cutaway of the assembly is shown in Fig. The discharge takes place in a closed toroidal chamber made of stainless steel 0.
This chamber was enclosed in a toroidal copper sheath 20 mm in thickness. Two insulated cuts in a plane parallel to the torus axis and an insulated cut along its generatrix are incorporated in the copper sheath.
The inner thin-walled chamber and the space between it and the sheath are evacuated by separate vacuum systems. The diameter of the inner cross section of the discharge chamber is 0.
The chamber is the secondary coil of an air-core transformer. The primary coil is formed by 20 turns of a thick copper strip wound near the surface of the sheath.
A copper shield which. The coils for producing the longitudinal field were wound directly on the surface of the copper sheath.
The field can be increased up to 12, gauss. Electrical energy for the discharge circuit and longitudinal field coils is supplied by capacitor banks at peak voltage the total amount of stored energy is 1.
In the experiments carried out with the device described here the peak gas current was ka for a discharge voltage of 0.
The main results obtained in the first stages of our experimental study of discharge processes in toroidal metallic chambers can be summarized as follows : 1.
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