First contact with sapient, extraterrestrial lifeforms can be a monumental moment in history or it can be the end of history as we know it. When it happens, reality. Bibliography – (4) Playing-card history and speculations on their origins. D'Allemagne, Henry-René Les cartes à jouer du XIVe au XXe siècle: Hachette, Paris. Playing Cards: HEARTS. Direction Robert Lepage The story focuses on the French automaton-maker and the father of modern magic. Due to his training in.
Playing-card history and speculations on their originswith short chapters on the history of playing cards and on playing-card and card game terminology. The main part of the book provides descriptions of card. Playing Card. Co., Buenos Aires. History of the. War. Design: Lino Palacio (“Flax“, ). 52 + JJ (all different), complete. Offset, 88x63 mm. Waddingtons (auch Waddington's oder John Waddington) war ein britischer Hersteller von Waddingtons Games bei Reynolds Collectors' World (englisch); History of Waddington's Playing Cards bei The World of Playing Cards (englisch).
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Das hГtte Story Behind Playing Cards mich die Serie rund gemacht, der eine HГhe von bis zu 100 Euro Story Behind Playing Cards kann. - Bibliography – (4) Playing-card history and speculations on their originsSpanish playing cards from the Civil War until
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The Kings, Queens and Knaves were firmly installed in the court, the suits of Hearts, Spades, Clubs and Diamonds were being turned out of factories in England and the New World.
Corner side indices appeared in diametric corners and the reversible court card was all but the norm. These small improvements may seem minor, but they had taken hundreds of years to refine.
All the innovations which had grown and evolved out of the refinement of European manufacturing practices from the late 14th century, had by now coalesced into this single elegant package — the standard playing card.
Meanwhile, over in the New World, all the semblances were gradually falling into place for the first industrial scale production and widespread diffusion of playing cards.
Playing cards entered American through the colonies and with countless immigrants who arrived on her shores. With the growth in population and the relentless push westward, their use was only becoming more and more widespread in the bars and saloons staggered across the frontier.
America was building an enviable industrial base and large-scale manufacture was, for the first time in history, a feasible undertaking.
Not surprisingly, as it was some years earlier in Germany, playing card manufacture had provided the impetus for technical development in printing.
Around it was card masters like Cohen and De La Rue who had mastered the four-colour impression in just one pass — a technological achievement that still remains essential to the manufacturing process today.
Andrew Dougherty opened his workshop in Brooklyn in the 's, Samuel Hart was manufacturing out Philadelphia, and by Russell and Morgan had formed their partnership in Cincinnati.
It was only a few years after that before old friends like John M. Lawrence and John J. Levy would come together to form the New York Consolidated Card Company.
As printers all across America geared up for the first mechanized production of playing cards, a new dilemma emerged. For years the three Court cards had been called King, Queen and Knave.
It was only now for the Joker to appear. In the mid 19th century a particular variation of Euchre, which required an extra trump or Bower, became widely played in America.
The English government passed an Act that cards could not leave the factory until they had proof that the required tax on playing cards had been paid.
This initially involved hand stamping the Ace of Spades - probably because it was the top card. But to prevent tax evasion, in it was decided that from now on the Ace of Spades had to be purchased from the Commissioners for Stamp Duties, and that it had to be specially printed along with the manufacturer's name and the amount of duty paid.
As a result, the Ace of Spades tended to have elaborate designs along with the manufacturer's name. Only in were approved manufacturers finally allowed to print their own Ace of Spades, but the fate of the signature Ace of Spades had been decided, and the practice of an ornate Ace with the manufacturer's name was often continued.
As a result, to this day it is the one card in a deck that typically gets special treatment and elaborate designs. The artwork on English court cards appears to have been largely influenced by designs produced in Rouen, Belgium, which produced large amounts of playing cards for export.
They include details such as kings with crowns, flowing robes, beards, and longish hair; queens holding flowers and sceptres; and knaves that are clean-shaven, wearing caps, and holding arrows, feathers or pikes.
But whatever variety was present, slowly disappeared as a result of the industrious efforts of Briton Thomas de la Rue, who was able to reduce the prices of playing cards due to increased output and productivity.
This mass production he accomplished in the s gave him a position of dominance in the industry, and the smaller manufacturers with their independent designs eventually were swallowed up, leading to the more standardized designs as we know them today.
De la Rue's designs were first modernized by Reynolds in , and then again by Charles Goodall in , and it is this design that effectively still used today.
It was also around this time that double-ended court cards became common to avoid the need to turn the cards, thereby revealing to your opponent that you had court cards in your hand and the existing full-length designs were adapted to make them double-ended.
The Americans are late companions to our historical journey, because for a long time they simply relied on imports from England to meet the demand for playing cards.
Due to the general public's preference for goods of English origin, some American makers even printed the word "London" on their Ace of Spades, to ensure commercial success!
From the earliest days of colonization there are even examples of native Americans making their own decks with original suit symbols and designs, evidently having learned card games from the new inhabitants.
Among American manufacturers, a leading name from the early s is Lewis I. Cohen, who even spent four years in England, and began publishing playing cards in In he invented a machine for printing all four colours of the card faces at once, and his successful business eventually became a public company in , under the name the New York Consolidated Card Company.
This company was responsible for introducing and popularizing corner indices to the English pack, to make it easier for players to hold and recognize a poker hand by only fanning the cards slightly.
Another printing company had already printed decks with indices in Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart , but it was the Consolidated Card Company that patented this design in First known as "squeezers", decks with these indices were not immediately well received.
A competing firm, Andrew Dougherty and Company initially began producing "triplicates", offering an alternative that used miniature card faces on the opposite corners of the cards.
But new territory had been won, and indices eventually became standard, and today it is hard to imagine playing cards without them. One final innovation that we owe to the United States is the addition of the Jokers.
The Joker was initially referred to as "the best bower", which is terminology that originates in the popular trick-taking game of euchre, which was popular in the midth century, and refers to the highest trump card.
It is an innovation from around that designated a trump card that beat both the otherwise highest ranking right bower and left bower.
But the disparity in pips from one deck to the next resists such pat categorization. Diamonds, by contrast, could have represented the upper class in French decks, as paving stones used in the chancels of churches were diamond shaped, and such stones marked the graves of the aristocratic dead.
But how to account for the use of clover, acorns, leaves, pikes, shields, coins, roses, and countless other imagery? British and French decks, for example, always feature the same four legendary kings: Charles, David, Caesar, and Alexander the Great.
Bostock notes that queens have not enjoyed similar reverence. Pallas, Judith, Rachel, and Argine variously ruled each of the four suits, with frequent interruption.
As the Spanish adopted playing cards, they replaced queens with mounted knights or caballeros. The ace rose to prominence in , according to the IPCS.
That was the year England began to tax sales of playing cards. The ace was stamped to indicate that the tax had been paid, and forging an ace was a crime punishable by death.
To this day, the ace is boldly designed to stand out. The older versions also mention the deck being divided into thirteen ranks, one for each lunar month, a detail dropped from more contemporary versions in recognition of modern society having moved away from the lunar calendar.
Some point out that if you count up all the spots on the cards, you come up with only , not the claimed.
The version contained an explanation for that, which has also been dropped from newer accounts:. When I count how many spots there are in a pack of cards, I find there are three hundred and sixty-five, there are so many days in the year.
Stop, said the mayor that is a mistake. I grant it, said the soldier, but as I have never yet seen an Almanack that was teoroughly [sic] correct in all points it would have been impossible for me to have imitated an Almanack exactly without a mistake.
Your observations are very correct said the mayor. Go on. Other catechism-type songs have been around for centuries. What are they that are but one?
We have one God alone In heaven above sits on His throne. What are they which are by two? Two testaments, the old and new, We do acknowledge to be true.
What are they which are but three? Pingback: BAMA — Playing Cards. Graphic Design. Pingback: bookmarks — volume 2, issue 1 my name is not matt. Pingback: aboutcorrine.
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